Pulmonary Hypertension And Its Types: All You Need To Know

Pulmonary Hypertension

In this article, we’ll discuss what is Pulmonary Hypertension and its different types.

What Is Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)?

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is related to different connective tissue diseases like CREST Syndrome, Lupus, and Scleroderma. It could also be related to HIV, chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, toxins, drugs, etc.

The condition may also result because of genetics or idiopathic causes. This type of pulmonary hypertension is treated by using different methods to reduce the excessive growth of cells in the pulmonary arteries. The treatment may be done using medicines, continuous infusions, and inhalers specific to this treatment.

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) may be classified based on the causes and the method of treatment used. This condition needs to be understood properly before proper treatment can be devised for it.

Here we have listed out the major types of pulmonary hypertension. We hope to help our readers understand their health condition better before they can take due steps to tackle it. Read along to get acquainted with facts about this health condition.

Types Of Pulmonary Hypertension

1. Pulmonary Hypertension Due To Left Heart Disease

There could be a number of causes that result in pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease. Here we have listed out a couple of the most commonly known causes:

  • Individuals who are suffering from heart valve disease may eventually be subject to this kind of pulmonary hypertension.
  • Individuals who have undergone damage to the heart muscles may also suffer from this kind of pulmonary hypertension.
  • Age could be a significant contributor that results in left heart disease and pulmonary hypertension as a result.
  • Patients of coronary heart disease may also suffer from pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.
  • High blood pressure could be another factor that may result in pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

This kind of pulmonary hypertension can be treated only when the underlying causes are dealt with effectively.

2. Pulmonary Hypertension Due To Hypoxia (And/Or Lung Diseases)

This is the type of pulmonary hypertension visible in patients suffering from Lung Diseases or Hypoxia. There are a range of causes that may result in this condition. We have listed some of the prominent causes below:

  • Individuals suffering from interstitial lung diseases may suffer from pulmonary hypertension as a result.
  • COPD may also result in pulmonary hypertension in patients.
  • Patients may also suffer from pulmonary hypertension if they are suffering from any lung disease that may cause a reduction in the level of oxygen in the body.

All the lung diseases mentioned above cause the pulmonary vessels to tighten. This is what eventually leads to pulmonary hypertension in patients. Since the cause of this kind of pulmonary hypertension is the underlying lung disease, treatments also focus on the cure of the existing lung diseases.

3. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

This is a unique type of pulmonary hypertension commonly found in older people. It is caused as a result of the formation of organized blood clots in the lungs. These blood clots pose a barrier and prevent the blood from flowing freely within the pulmonary arteries.

This kind of pulmonary hypertension can be treated surgically. The blood clots in the lungs need to be removed through surgery. Doctors may even prescribe medicines or tablets capable of dissolving the blood clots in case surgery is not a suitable option.

4. Multifactorial Pulmonary Hypertension

Apart from the above-listed causes, pulmonary hypertension may also result from some health problems that may not be directly linked to the condition.

Here we have listed out these causes resulting in multifactorial pulmonary hypertension:

  • Blood Disease: Individuals who suffer from sickle cell anemia or chronic hemolytic anemia may suffer from pulmonary hypertension as a result of these existing conditions.
  • Metabolic Disease: Some of the metabolic diseases that may also result in pulmonary hypertension are thyroid disease and Gaucher disease.
  • History of Spleen Removal: Individuals with a history of spleen removal have also been observed to suffer from pulmonary hypertension.
  • Sarcoidosis may also result in pulmonary hypertension.

If a person suffers from pulmonary hypertension due to any of these underlying conditions, he is treated for the condition to ensure the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

Factors To Consider In PAH Patients

A health condition like pulmonary hypertension tends to affect different aspects of a person’s life. There are certain considerations to make in the case of such patients. There should be proper guidelines to be provided to patients of pulmonary hypertension and their caregivers. This will ensure reduced risks and better living conditions for the patients. Here we have listed out some of the essential considerations one needs to make:

1. Health Measures

There are some health measures that need to be taken for patients of pulmonary hypertension. They should be provided with seasonal influenza vaccination. They should also be provided with pneumococcal vaccination. 

2. Contraception

Pregnancy may not be safe for women suffering from pulmonary hypertension. This is the reason why women with this condition should be provided with proper counseling regarding contraception. Pregnancy can be especially dangerous in women suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is the reason why they are counseled to choose long-acting contraceptive measures.

3. Mental Health Measures

Most often the mental health of a person suffering from pulmonary hypertension is never considered. This condition may result in stress, uncertainty, and anxiety. These conditions need to be dealt with in a mature manner.

Ample enough regarding the health condition as well as the measures being taken to deal with it should be shared with the patient. This will help to eliminate the uncertainty associated with the health condition.

Physical health and mental health are often interconnected. A patient’s attitude towards his own health can have a major impact on the way his life continues. Doctors must suggest a healthy diet and lifestyle habits that may ensure better health for the individual.

The doctors should also emphasize the need for a healthy approach towards the condition. Patients should be encouraged to do meditation and yoga in order to stay free from stress. All these measures will surely help people lead better and longer lives.